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ADDIE Instructional Design Model

Page history last edited by Teresa Tang-Quick 9 years, 9 months ago


The within the field of educational technology there are numerous ways to design and communicate opportunities for learning to an audience of learners. Among the various models of instructional system design (ISD) used in teaching, the ADDIE model is commonly used to create instructional materials that cater to the instructor's overall goal. In order to understand the ADDIE model, an instructor must consider its five phases:




Steps of the ADDIE Model

  1. Analyze – During this phase, the instructional problem is identified in addition to the goals and objectives, the audience’s needs, existing knowledge, and any other relevant characteristics.
  2. Design – This is the phase where systematic and specific selection of learning objectives, assessment instruments, exercises, content, subject matter analysis, lesson planning, graphical user interface (GUI), and media selection are decided upon.
  3. Develop – The production, creation and/or assembly of the content outlined in the Design phase of the model.
  4. Implement – The action and a procedure for training the learner and instructor is developed.  Additionally, the medium in which the material was created in disturbed with any supplemental information needed to prepare learners and instructors.
  5. Evaluate - The evaluation phase consists of two parts: formative and summative. Present in each stage of the ADDIE process is the formative evaluation. The formative evaluation focuses on testing within small groups to improve the mode of instruction. On the other hand, the summative evaluation consists of tests that ensure that the medium was a success in teaching the learner the intended lesson/outcome.



Graphic Illustration

Here's another graphical illustration of the ADDIE model with a brief explanation of the five each phases:



History of the ADDIE Model


Florida State University creates the ADDIE model for the U.S. Army (Branson, Rayner, Cox, Furman, King, Hannum, 1975).

Early 80's

Dr. Russell Watson revises the ADDIE model.  The five main phases remain the same, but the steps within the phases are changed.  This is done to fit an organization's needs (Watson, 1981). 


ADDIE changes from a linear to a dynamic model (U.S. Army, 1984). The last phase, "Evaluation and Control," is shortened to "Evaluation" (U.S Army, 1984).


ADDIE is first used as an acronym (Schlegel, 1995).


J. J. G. van Merrienbor (1997) writes that other instructional design models can be used in conjunction with ADDIE; thus it is a "plug & play" model.


ADDIE moves from being a process model (De Simone, Werner, Harris 2002) to being a guide . While ADDIE strives to identify on-the-job performance (Branson, Rayner, Cox, Furman, Hannum, 1975), it works best with other performance models.



Clark, D. R. (2004). ADDIE timeline. Retrieved from http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/history_isd/addie.html#model


Dick, W., & Carey, L. (1996). The systematic design of instruction. New York, NY: Haper Collins College Publishers.


Leshin, C.B., Pollock, J., & Reigeluth, C. M. (1992). Instructional design strategies and tactics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Education Technology Publications.


Molenda, M. (2003). "In search of the elusive ADDIE model". Performance improvement, 42(5), 34-37.


Strickland, A.W. (2006). ISU College of Education: ADDIE. Retrieved from http://ed.isu.edu/addie/index.html.




Comments (8)

Anthony Green said

at 10:01 pm on Apr 25, 2011

First draft - Done. :)

Teresa Tang-Quick said

at 6:22 pm on Apr 27, 2011

Hey Anthony,

Great work! :) I changed just a couple of grammatical errors, and fixed the video (it kept linking to something weird instead of playing the video), and changed the steps you listed by making them all verbs (some were verbs and some were nouns, so I just made it consistent) and made the descriptions into full sentences instead. I also added a heading for the list of steps, and made all your titles headings (instead of plain text).


Teresa Tang-Quick said

at 6:24 pm on Apr 27, 2011

Oh yeah! I also changed the APA citation for the third reference. I noticed that ADDIE was typed as addie, and I know that we are not supposed to capitalize within a title with APA format, but I think there is an exception with acroynms/pronouns/etc. But if I am wrong, please let me know and I will change it back!

Anthony Green said

at 6:35 pm on Apr 27, 2011

Thanks for the feedback. That's odd...The Youtube link worked for me. And, I see where you changed a few of the sentences. That works fine with me!

Teresa Tang-Quick said

at 6:45 pm on Apr 27, 2011

Yeah, it was odd. The video looks perfect on the screen, but when I clicked on it, it would bring me somewhere else and not play the video! Strange! I hope it doesn't randomly stop working!

Abida Merchant said

at 9:31 pm on Apr 27, 2011

Ok guys, I have done my part. I added the last section with the links and also added the website that I got it from in the reference section. Plz check the links and also the APA formatting of my citation.

Abida Merchant said

at 6:49 am on Apr 28, 2011

You know what guys I think the job of the 2nd editor is the best, the poor primary editor has to slog, the 1st editor has to go through everything with a fine toothed comb and all the 1st editor has to do is add a few things and yaay done!! Any openings for it?? Jokes apart, I added last extra section, how's and why's of Addie, I also added my citation in the reference section in APA format (saving you some time Teresa, JK)....plz check to make sure everything is ok. Thank everybody for being such good sports!

Teresa Tang-Quick said

at 5:50 pm on Apr 28, 2011

Hi guys,

For Abida's addition, I changed the commentary under each link into full sentences so it reads a little bit better. Links are all working. I also changed the APA formatting of the last reference because I think that if the title is a pronoun, it is OK to have it capitalized. I also removed the date from the first reference because I think that it's not necessary to add the date retrieved anymore. Please let me know if I am wrong!!!!!

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